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Laboratory-produced progeny of Coregonus alpenae, C. zenithicus, C. hoyi, and C. kiyi and their wild parents were used to examine the contributions of genotype and environment to morphology. Morphological differences between parents and offspring were generally greater than those between species, indicating strong environmental effects. The phenotypic effects on most characters can probably be attributed to different developmental temperatures and perhaps to stresses in the hatchery not encountered in the Great Lakes. Genetic differences were inferred from morphological differences between offspring of different species raised under identical conditions. Genetic differences were demonstrated between C. hoyi and C. kiyi but not between C. alpenae and C. zenithicus which suggested that our samples of C. alpenae and C. zenithicus represented only a single species. The presence of unique stocks of coregonines in the Great Lakes, as well as of several species, suggests that management strategies should focus on both levels of diversity.
Additional Publication Details
Environmental and genetic contributions to morphological differentiation in ciscoes (Coregoninae) of the Great Lakes
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences