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During an epornitic of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease (VVND) in southern California, free-flying wild birds, captive and free-ranging semidomestic birds, and exotic birds were collected from the quarantine area to determine their role in the epizootiology of the disease. The VVND virus was isolated from 0.04% of 9,446 free-flying wild birds, 0.76% of 4,367 semidomestic birds, and 1.01% of 3,780 exotic birds examined. Three house sparrows and 1 crow directly associated with infected poultry flocks were the only free-flying wild birds from which VVND virus was isolated. Among semidomestic species, ducks, quail, chukars, pheasants, peafowl, pigeons, and doves were found to be infected. Psittacines, pittas, and toucans accounted for 92% of the VVND virus isolations from exotic birds. In addition, domestic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was isolated from 0.29% of the free-flying wild birds, from 1.65% of the semidomestic birds, and from 0.19% of the exotic birds collected. Hemagglutination-inhibition against domestic NDV was demonstrated in 0.24% of 3,796 wild bird serums, 8.28% of 2,004 semidomestic bird serums, and 3.90% of 231 exotic bird serums tested.Although few free-flying wild birds were infected with VVND virus in this epornitic, the isolation of domestic NDV strains from free-flying wild ducks and mourning doves suggests the potential for transportation of NDV over long distances by migratory birds.
Additional Publication Details
The role of indigenous wild, semidomestic, and exotic birds in the epizootiology of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease in southern California, 1972-1973
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association