Seasonal survival of 109 adult female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) fitted with radio transmitters was evaluated in northcentral Minnesota during 1968-74. Survival rates for the 169-day breeding and postbreeding period were: 1.0 during nest initiation (36 days), 0.798 during incubation (28 days), 0.943 during brood rearing (51 days), 0.947 during molt (26 days), and 1.0 during premigration (28 days). Survival for the 169-day spring-summer period was 0.713 for adult females remaining on the study area. Fall-winter survival was estimated at 0.881 for those adult birds remaining on the study area throughout the summer. The data confirm speculation on relative risk to females of various phases of the mallard reproductive cycle and support previous conclusions that the northcentral Minnesota breeding mallard population is not self sustaining. The value of learning further details of processes affecting specific seasonal mortality factors for both adult and young waterfowl is emphasized.
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Spring and summer survival of female mallards from northcentral Minnesota