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A review of recent waterfowl food habit studies showed that invertebrates are of major dietary importance to ducks wintering in California. However current wetland practices are directed at production of plant foods and seldom consider the propagation of invertebrates. We suggest that invertebrate repopulation of seasonally flooded marshes will occur more rapidly if an inoculum of invertebrates is provided via small ponds flooded several weeks before general marsh flooding in fall. Managers will require considerably more information before management of aquatic invertebrates can be fully developed.
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Management of midges and other invertebrates for waterfowl wintering in California