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Waterfowl biologists need reliable predictors of brood and duckling survival to accurately estimate recruitment rates. We examined 30-day survival rates of gadwall (Anas strepera ) broods (1992-1994) and ducklings (1990-1994) in eastern North Dakota during years when water conditions ranged from extremely dry to extremely wet. Despite apparent resilience of gadwall populations during drought, our study documented a positive effect of seasonal wetland availability on gadwall duckling survival. Management efforts to improve recruitment will be more effective in years when most seasonal basins contain water.
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Factors affecting gadwall brood and duckling survival in prairie pothole landscapes