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Flow cytometric analysis of crayfish haemocytes activated by lipopolysaccharides

Fish and Shellfish Immunology

By:
, , and
DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2003.03.001

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Abstract

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria are strong stimulators of white river crayfish, Procambarus zonangulus, haemocytes in vitro. Following haemocyte treatment with LPS and with LPS from rough mutant R5 (LPS Rc) from Salmonella minnesota, flow cytometric analysis revealed a conspicuous and reproducible decrease in cell size as compared to control haemocytes. These LPS molecules also caused a reduction in haemocyte viability as assessed by flow cytometry with the fluorescent dyes calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer. The onset of cell size reduction was gradual and occurred prior to cell death. Haemocytes treated with LPS from S. minnesota without the Lipid A moiety (detoxified LPS) decreased in size without a reduction of viability. The action of LPS on crayfish haemocytes appeared to be related to the activation of the prophenoloxidase system because phenoloxidase (PO)-specific activity in the supernatants from control and detoxified LPS-treated cells was significantly lower than that from LPS and LPS-Rc treated cells (P < 0.05). Furthermore, addition of trypsin inhibitor to the LPS treatments caused noticeable delays in cell size and viability changes. These patterns of cellular activation by LPS formulations indicated that crayfish haemocytes react differently to the polysaccharide and lipid A moieties of LPS, where lipid A is cytotoxic and the polysaccharide portion is stimulatory. These effects concur with the general pattern of mammalian cell activation by LPS, thereby indicting commone innate immune recognition mechanisms to bacterial antigens between cells from mammals and invertebrates. These definitive molecular approaches used to verify and identify mechanisms of invertbrate haemocyte responses to LPS could be applied with other glycoconjugates, soluble mediators, or xenobiotic compounds.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Flow cytometric analysis of crayfish haemocytes activated by lipopolysaccharides
Series title:
Fish and Shellfish Immunology
DOI:
10.1016/j.fsi.2003.03.001
Volume
17
Issue:
3
Year Published:
2004
Language:
English
Publisher:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Contributing office(s):
National Wetlands Research Center
Description:
p. 223-233
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Fish and Shellfish Immunology
First page:
223
Last page:
233