Bayluscide is an additive to TFM that increases the effectiveness of TFM as a lampricide. A review of the literature was undertaken to determine the environmental fate and effects of Bayluscide. Niclosamide (2', 5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide), the active ingredient of Bayluscide, degrades rapidly in natural water and sediment systems, however, the rate of degradation is very slow in autoclaved samples. This difference suggests that degradation under laboratory conditions is dependent on microbial activity and hydrolysis plays a minor role in degradation of niclosamide. The major degradation product of niclosamide has been reported to be aminoniclosamide (2',5-dichloro-4'-aminosalicylanilide), which represented more than 50% of the residues extractable from sediments. Significantly more of the chemical is adsorbed to sediments with higher organic content and at lower pH's. The mobility of niclosamide in soil can be characterized as slight to medium; the estimated leaching distance would range from 0 to > 25 cm depending on the soil type and pH. The active ingredient of Bayluscide (niclosamide) is decomposed by ultra-violet light depending on the intensity and duration of the exposure. The uptake of residues by most invertebrates exposed to super(14)C-niclosamide is fairly rapid and equilibrium is reached within 24 h. About 90% of the accumulated residues were lost within 48 h after the organisms were transferred to clean flowing water. As with invertebrates, fish rapidly accumulate and eliminate residues of niclosamide. Three distinct residues were isolated from the extracts of edible fillet tissue; parent niclosamide, the glucuronide conjugate of niclosamide, and the sulfate ester of niclosamide. Aquatic plants and agricultural crops do not appear to be adversely affected at concentrations of Bayluscide used for lamprey or snail control. Mayflies (Hexagenia sp.). tend to be susceptible to TFM, but are relatively resistant to the effects of exposure to Bayluscide. Bayluscide was originally developed as a molluscicide to eliminate snails. Therefore, it is not surprising that mollusks are extremely sensitive to Bayluscide. Oral, dermal, and ocular administration of Bayluscide to mammals resulted in no clinical signs of systemic toxicity. Tests of the chronic effects of Bayluscide indicated that it is not mutagenic or carcinogenic. Bayluscide is not persistent in the environment; it breaks down in natural water and sediment systems through hydrolysis, photolysis, and microbial degradation. Given the limited use and tight control maintained by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service during applications of lampricides, Bayluscide presents minimal risk to human health and safety of the environment.
Additional Publication Details
Environmental fate and effects of the lampricide bayluscide: a review