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Poisoning of wild birds from exposure to anticholinesterase compounds and lead: diagnostic methods and selected cases

Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine

By:
and

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Abstract

Organophosphorus and carbamate compounds have largely replaced chlorinated hydrocarbons for pesticidal use in the United States, and many cases of poisoning resulting from exposure to these anticholinesterase agents have occurred in free-living birds. Although lead shot has been prohibited for waterfowl hunting throughout the United States since 1991, lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is still occasionally seen in wild birds, and lead poisoning from the ingestion of fishing sinkers is an emerging issue of concern. A thorough history, a complete necropsy evaluation, and appropriate laboratory analysis of tissues are required to diagnose toxicoses in wild birds, including those caused by anticholinesterase compounds and lead. The interpretation of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity results depends on the methods of analysis and comparison with expected normal enzyme activities in brain tissue from the same species. Although lead residues in tissues vary among species, many lead poisoned birds have tissue residues that are much higher than the lower threshold commonly accepted for a diagnosis of lead poisoning. We review histories, necropsy findings, and analytical methodologies and results for selected anticholinesterase and lead poisoning cases diagnosed in wild raptors, waterfowl, and loons.

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Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Poisoning of wild birds from exposure to anticholinesterase compounds and lead: diagnostic methods and selected cases
Series title:
Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine
Volume
8
Issue:
1
Year Published:
1999
Language:
English
Contributing office(s):
National Wildlife Health Center
Description:
p. 3-11
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine
First page:
3
Last page:
11
Number of Pages:
9
Country:
United States
Online Only (Y/N):
N
Additional Online Files(Y/N):
N