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Waterbird mortality from botulism type E in Lake Michigan (USA, Canada): an update

Wilson Bulletin

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Abstract

Three outbreaks of botulism type E occurring in waterbirds on Lake Michigan since autumn 1976 are discussed. Natural ingestion of food containing type E toxin by Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis) and the presence of type E toxin in the blood from moribund gulls were demonstrated. Concurrent presence of type C and type E botulinal toxins was found in a die-off of Common Loons (Gavia immer). In combination with previous reported outbreaks, these incidents suggest that this disease is geographically widespread in Lake Michigan, and that environmental conditions conducive to type E botulinal toxin production and consumption occur in both summer and autumn.

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Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Waterbird mortality from botulism type E in Lake Michigan (USA, Canada): an update
Series title:
Wilson Bulletin
Volume
95
Issue:
2
Year Published:
1983
Language:
English
Contributing office(s):
National Wildlife Health Center
Description:
p. 269-275
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Wilson Bulletin
First page:
269
Last page:
275
Country:
United States
Other Geospatial:
Lake Michigan
Online Only (Y/N):
N
Additional Online Files(Y/N):
N