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Changes in element contents of four lichens over 11 years in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, northern Minnesota

Environmental and Experimental Botany

By:
and

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Abstract

Four species of lichen (Cladina rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Hypogymnia physodes, and Parmelia sulcata) were sampled at six locations in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness three times over a span of 11 years and analyzed for concentrations of 16 chemical elements to test the hypotheses that corticolous species would accumulate higher amounts of chemical elements than terricolous species, and that 11 years were sufficient to detect spatial patterns and temporal trends in element contents. Multivariate analyses of over 2770 data points revealed two principal components that accounted for 68% of the total variance in the data. These two components, the first highly loaded with Al, B, Cr, Fe, Ni and S, and the second loaded with Ca, Cd, Mg and Mn, were inversely related to each other over time and space. The first component was interpreted as consisting of an anthropogenic and a dust component, while the second, primarily a nutritional component. Cu, K, Na, P, Pb and Zn were not highly loaded on either component. Component 1 decreased significantly over the 11 years and from west to east, while component 2 increased. The corticolous species were more enriched in heavy metals than the terricolous species. All four elements in component 2 in H. physodes were above enrichment thresholds for this species. Species differences on the two components were greater than the effects of time and space, suggesting that biomonitoring with lichens is strongly species dependent. Some localities in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness appear enriched in some anthropogenic elements for no obvious reasons.

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Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Changes in element contents of four lichens over 11 years in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, northern Minnesota
Series title:
Environmental and Experimental Botany
Volume
41
Issue:
1
Year Published:
1999
Language:
English
Contributing office(s):
National Wildlife Health Center
Description:
p. 75-82
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Environmental and Experimental Botany
First page:
75
Last page:
82
Country:
United States
State:
Minnesota
Other Geospatial:
Boundary Waters
Online Only (Y/N):
N
Additional Online Files(Y/N):
N