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Fish assemblages in Macrocystis and Nereocystis kelp forrests off Central California

Fishery Bulletin

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Abstract

Golden Bear Oil or GB-1111 is a petroleum distillate that is used throughout the United States as a larvicide for mosquito pupae. The oil forms a barrier at the air-water interface, which suffocates air-breathing insects. There are few published studies on non-target effects of GB-1111 but the product label warns that ?GB-1111 is toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms.? Fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on days 4 or 11 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3, or 10 times the maximum rate (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated on day 4 or day 11 at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD50 of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hatching success of bobwhite was only reduced at the highest level of treatment. Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos/ hatchlings, lower body and liver weights of hatchlings and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal P450-associated monooxygenase activity (EROD) in hatchlings. Recommended rates of field application of GB-1111 are potentially toxic to mallard embryos, especially under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap, but unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Fish assemblages in Macrocystis and Nereocystis kelp forrests off Central California
Series title:
Fishery Bulletin
Volume
84
Issue:
4
Year Published:
1986
Language:
English
Publisher:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Contributing office(s):
Alaska Biological Science Center
Description:
pp. 799-808
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Fishery Bulletin
First page:
799
Last page:
808