In order to determine possible sources of vitamin A for quail, 37 species of insects and other invertebrates were analyzed for vitamin A and for carotene, and 26 species of seeds and fruits were assayed for carotene. The invertebrates showed no trace of vitamin A; but 8 herbivorous invertebrates and the praying mantis contained carotene. Most of the plants contained carotene--some of them a lot (dotted smartweed, some legumes, sumac, roses, bittersweet, etc.). The amount of carotene varied among plants of the same species and even among fruits on the same plant.
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Organochlorine-induced mortality and residues in long-billed curlews from Oregon