Nonimmune homing pigeons Columba livia were infected with the Jones' Barn strain of Trichomonas gallinae and subsequently transfused with plasma from acute or chronically infected pigeons harboring one of 3 different strains of T. gallinae. The transfusions were either a single 2 mi dose given one day after inoculation or three 1 ml doses given 0, 5, and 10 days after inoculation. Plasma from pigeons harboring any of the 3 strains was capable of passively immunizing nonimmune birds. All birds which were immunized with plasma from infected pigeons survived until killed at the end of the test period and no visceral lesions were found on necropsy but trichomonads were present in the oropharynx. All controls (untreated or transfused with normal plasma) died of visceral trichomoniasis. Immune plasma produced some lysis of trichomonads in vitro, and inhibition of motility and vacuolization occurred in some of the non-lysed organisms. The overall lytic activity in vitro affected less than 10% of the suspended trichomonads.
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Optical characteristics of natural waters protect amphibians from UV-B in the U.S. Pacific Northwest: a reply