Wolf ( Canis lupus) depredations on livestock in Minnesota have been increasing over the last 20 years. This study concluded that besides wolf range expansion, both wolf colonization of new areas within long-existing range, and learning by wolves in established Minnesota range contributed to wolf depredation increase. The proportion of depredations occurring due to wolf range expansion increased from 20% in 1989 to 48% in 1998.
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Causes of wolf depredation increase in Minnesota from 1979-1998