Many of the known recoverable coal reserves in the Western United States occur within the breeding and wintering range of the Brewer's sparrow. Although the species is common throughout much of its breeding range, local and regional populations may be adversely affected due to mining-related disturbances and habitat loss. The species may serve as a valuable indicator of the impacts of surface-mining activities because it is restricted primarily to the sagebrush type during the breeding season and is known to be sensitive to habitat change. Recommendations for mitigating impacts focus on minimizing disturbance during the breeding season and re-establishing preferred native vegetation on mined sites. Monitoring populations on and adjacent to mine sites will give a better understanding of the effects of disturbance and the success of mitigation efforts.