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To estimate regional survival and band recovery rates for waterfowl populations, banding sites must be grouped for data analysis. We group American black duck banding sites using cluster analysis of pairwise comparisons of the distributions of band recoveries. We propose 6 population units, substantially fewer than the 27 black duck reference areas currently used. Flyways do not seem to reflect the population affInities of black ducks.
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Black duck population units as determined by patterns of band recovery