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Wartime diet for growing bobwhite quail

Journal of Wildlife Management

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Abstract

Two experiments, using 784 bobwhite quail chicks, were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to find a growing diet that would meet wartime restrictions. In 1941 a diet containing 14 per cent sardine fish meal was formulated and gave satisfactory results from the standpoints of survival and growth. Since fish meal now is scarce, search was made for a diet without war-restricted commodities yet equal to the above-mentioned diet in feeding value. Ten diets were compared.....In the present experiments, quail fed this same diet modified by the substitution of 0.12 per cent of D-activated sterol for vitamin A and D feeding oil fortified showed the highest survival and the best live weights at the end of both the sixth and tenth weeks. They also were among the top three groups in requiring the least quantity of feed per unit of gain in weight; however, they consumed the greatest quantity of feed.....Of the other nine diets, that which seemed most promising, considering survival, live weight, and efficiency of feed utilization, was as follows (parts by weight) : Yellow corn, ground 26.08...Millet, ground 10.00...Alfalfa leaf meal, dehydrated 7.50...Soybean oil meal, solvent-processed 50.00...Dried whey 3.00...Special steamed bonemeal 1.50...Limestone, ground 0.80...Salt mixture 1.OO...D-activated animal sterol 0.12....100.00.....At the end of ten weeks the results on this diet (Diet l l ) , as compared with that containing sardine meal (Diet 23), were as follows: Diet No. 11 Percentage survival 71, Average live weight per bird, grams 144,....Growing mash consumed, per bird-day, grams 6.8 Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams) 3.8......Diet 23....Percentage survival, 80,...Avg live weight per bird, grams....145,....Growing mash consumed , per bird-day, grams...7.4...Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams)....3.9. Results were unsatisfactory when expeller-processed soybean oil meal was used in this diet to replace solvent-processed meal. At the end of ten weeks only 60 per cent of the quail survived and the average live weight was only 138 grams.....When the level of dried whey was raised to 5 per cent to provide a margin of safety against abnormal feather growth (resulting partly from riboflavin deficiency), the number of survivals was nearly as high as on the diet containing 14 per cent sardine meal, but the average live weight per bird was only 139 grams. The difference between this weight and that for the birds on Diet 11 (3% dried whey) was not statistically significant.....The general rating for the diet was as high as that for Diet 11, when ground wheat replaced ground millet in the diet containing 3 per cent dried whey. Survival of birds was 5 per cent-units lower, the average live weight was about the same, and efficiency of feed utilization was higher.....Using D-activated animal sterol as a source of vitamin D and yellow corn and a good grade of alfalfa leaf meal as sources of vitamin A, fish oils were omitted from the diets without causing symptons of avitaminosis. However because of the instability of vitamin A in storage, it is advisable to include sufficient fish oil, if obtainable, in quail diets to supply at least 2,000 I. U. of vitamin A per pound of feed on a total feed basis.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Wartime diet for growing bobwhite quail
Series title:
Journal of Wildlife Management
Volume
8
Issue:
3
Year Published:
1944
Language:
English
Contributing office(s):
Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
Description:
211-218
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Journal of Wildlife Management
First page:
211
Last page:
218
Number of Pages:
8