Thirteen pairs of chemicals involving 18 pesticides and two polychlorinated biphenyl preparations were each fed for 5 days to Japanese quail or ring-necked pheasant chicks 7 to 16 days of age. Malathion + EPN, and malathion + trichlorofon were moderately synergistic in tests with both species, whereas joint toxicities of the other chemicals tended to be additive. Comparisons with other studies of joint action of pesticides against mammals and insects suggest that the two species of birds tested are less susceptible to synergism than are mammals or insects. The results also suggest that the likelihood of a factor of synergism greater than three in birds is not great.
Additional Publication Details
Tests of pesticidal synergism with young pheasants and Japanese quail
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology