Three sets of 15 pairs of black ducks (Anas rubripes) were given 0, 10, or 50 ppm toxaphene in a dry mash diet for a period of 19 months, which included two breeding seasons. Survival of adults was not affected, but the weights of treated males were depressed during the summer months. Egg production, fertility, hatchability, eggshell thickness, growth, and survival of young did not vary with toxaphene ingestion in either breeding season. However, the mean number of days required to complete a clutch was lower in birds fed toxaphene than in birds on the control diet. Clutches of hens fed 50 ppm toxaphene showed improved hatching success in the second year of the study. Carcass wet-weight (70% moisture) residues in adults and the young birds averaged from 50 to 100% of the dietary concentration (7% moisture); egg residues showed a similar trend. Carcass residues did not reflect those found in the livers or brains of the adults, which seldom exceeded 0.5 ppm. Toxaphene residues were found in the brain of only one 10 ppm bird, but were present in nearly all of the 50 ppm birds. Toxaphene residues were present in the liver of all birds ingesting toxaphene.
Additional Publication Details
Reproduction and residue accumulation in black ducks fed toxaphene
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology