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Post-abandonment homesite use by wolves (Canis lupus) was studied by radio-tracking and simulated howling in two packs in Superior National Forest, Minnesota. Pups, yearlings, and adults returned intermittently to former homesites up to four months after abandonment, usually after prolonged separation from the pack in early fall. Returns sometimes exceeded one week. Preferred summer homesites were revisited most frequently. Visits declined as the season progressed either because attempts to relocate the pack were not facilitated, or simply because separations became rare. While temporarily at homesites, single wolves replied significantly more to simulated howling than when anywhere else, suggesting that homesites may provide reassurance for separated wolves.
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Fall and winter homesite use by wolves in northeastern Minnesota