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Use of urine in snow to indicate condition of wolves

Journal of Wildlife Management

By:
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Abstract

Urine deposited in snow by wild gray wolves (Canis lupus) and by fed and fasted captive wolves was analyzed for urea nitrogen, calcium, sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Ratios of the elements with creatinine were considerably higher for fed than for fasted animals, and ratios for fed wolves compared favorably with ratios from wolf urine in snow along trails leading from kills. Thus, wolf urine in the snow can indicate whether wolves have fed recently, and a series of such urine collections from any given pack can indicate relative nutritional state.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Use of urine in snow to indicate condition of wolves
Series title:
Journal of Wildlife Management
Volume
51
Issue:
1
Year Published:
1987
Language:
English
Contributing office(s):
Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
Description:
10-13
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Journal of Wildlife Management
First page:
10
Last page:
13
Number of Pages:
4