Five-hundred nineteen mammals were reported dead at cyanide-extraction gold mines in Arizona [USA], California, and Nevada from 1984 through 1989. Most numerous were rodents (34.9%) and bats (33.7%); 'bat' was the most often reported category among 24 species or species groups. There are an estimated 160 cyanide-extraction gold mines in these three states, and the number is increasing. Ten mammal species listed as endangered, threatened, rare, protected, or species of special concern are known to have cyanide-extraction gold mines within their geographic ranges.
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Mammal mortality at Arizona, California, and Nevada gold mines using cyanide extraction