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Secondary poisoning of kestrels by white phosphorus

Ecotoxicology

DOI 10.1023/A:1018630912001 5148_Sparling.pdf
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Abstract

Since 1982, extensive waterfowl mortality due to white phosphorus (P4) has been observed at Eagle River Flats, a tidal marsh near Anchorage, Alaska. Ducks and swans that ingest P4 pellets become lethargic and may display severe convulsions. Intoxicated waterfowl attract raptors and gulls that feed on dead or dying birds. To determine if avian predators can be affected by secondary poisoning, we fed American kestrels (Falco sparverius) 10-day-old domestic chickens that had been dosed with white phosphorus. Eight of 15 kestrels fed intact chicks with a pellet of P4 implanted in their crops died within seven days. Three of 15 kestrels fed chicks that had their upper digestive tracts removed to eliminate any pellets of white phosphorus also died. Hematocrit and hemoglobin in kestrels decreased whereas lactate dehydrogenaseL, glucose, and alanine aminotransferase levels in plasma increased with exposure to contaminated chicks. Histological examination of liver and kidneys showed that the incidence and severity of lesions increased when kestrels were fed contaminated chicks. White phosphorus residues were measurable in 87% of the kestrels dying on study and 20% of the survivors. This study shows that raptors can become intoxicated either by ingesting portions of digestive tracts containing white phosphorus pellets or by consuming tissues of P4 contaminated prey.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Secondary poisoning of kestrels by white phosphorus
Series title:
Ecotoxicology
Volume
6
Issue:
4
Year Published:
1997
Language:
English
Contributing office(s):
Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
Description:
239-247
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Ecotoxicology
First page:
239
Last page:
247
Number of Pages:
9