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Inferences about nested subsets structure when not all species are detected

Oikos

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Abstract

Comparisons of species composition among ecological communities of different size have often provided evidence that the species in communities with lower species richness form nested subsets of the species in larger communities. In the vast majority of studies, the question of nested subsets has been addressed using information on presence-absence, where a '0' is interpreted as the absence of a given species from a given location. Most of the methodological discussion in earlier studies investigating nestedness concerns the approach to generation of model-based matrices. However, it is most likely that in many situations investigators cannot detect all the species present in the location sampled. The possibility that zeros in incidence matrices reflect nondetection rather than absence of species has not been considered in studies addressing nested subsets, even though the position of zeros in these matrices forms the basis of earlier inference methods. These sampling artifacts are likely to lead to erroneous conclusions about both variation over space in species richness and the degree of similarity of the various locations. Here we propose an approach to investigation of nestedness, based on statistical inference methods explicitly incorporating species detection probability, that take into account the probabilistic nature of the sampling process. We use presence-absence data collected under Pollock?s robust capture-recapture design, and resort to an estimator of species richness originally developed for closed populations to assess the proportion of species shared by different locations. We develop testable predictions corresponding to the null hypothesis of a nonnested pattern, and an alternative hypothesis of perfect nestedness. We also present an index for assessing the degree of nestedness of a system of ecological communities. We illustrate our approach using avian data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey collected in Florida Keys.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Inferences about nested subsets structure when not all species are detected
Series title:
Oikos
Volume
91
Issue:
3
Year Published:
2000
Language:
English
Contributing office(s):
Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
Description:
428-434
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Oikos
First page:
428
Last page:
434
Number of Pages:
7