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Recovery of ionic and metallic gold (Au) from a wide variety of solutions by selected species of bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, and higher plants is documented. Gold accumulations were up to 7.0 g/kg dry weight (DW) in various species of bacteria, 25.0 g/kg DW in freshwater algae, 84.0 g/kg DW in peat, and 100.0 g/kg DW in dried fungus mixed with keratinous material. Mechanisms of accumulation include oxidation, dissolution, reduction, leaching, and sorption. Uptake patterns are significantly modified by the physicochemical milieu. Crab exoskeletons accumulate up to 4.9 g Au/kg DW; however, gold accumulations in various tissues of living teleosts, decapod crustaceans, and bivalve molluscs are negligible.