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Calculating background levels for ecological risk parameters in toxic harbor sediment

Soil and Sediment Contamination

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Abstract

Establishing background levels for biological parameters is necessary in assessing the ecological risks from harbor sediment contaminated with toxic chemicals. For chemicals in sediment, the term contaminated is defined as having concentrations above background and significant human health or ecological risk levels. For biological parameters, a site could be considered contaminated if levels of the parameter are either more or less than the background level, depending on the specific parameter. Biological parameters can include tissue chemical concentrations in ecological receptors, bioassay responses, bioaccumulation levels, and benthic community metrics. Chemical parameters can include sediment concentrations of a variety of potentially toxic chemicals. Indirectly, contaminated harbor sediment can impact shellfish, fish, birds, and marine mammals, and human populations. This paper summarizes the methods used to define background levels for chemical and biological parameters from a survey of ecological risk investigations of marine harbor sediment at California Navy bases. Background levels for regional biological indices used to quantify ecological risks for benthic communities are also described. Generally, background stations are positioned in relatively clean areas exhibiting the same physical and general chemical characteristics as nearby areas with contaminated harbor sediment. The number of background stations and the number of sample replicates per background station depend on the statistical design of the sediment ecological risk investigation, developed through the data quality objective (DQO) process. Biological data from the background stations can be compared to data from a contaminated site by using minimum or maximum background levels or comparative statistics. In Navy ecological risk assessments (ERA's), calculated background levels and appropriate ecological risk screening criteria are used to identify sampling stations and sites with contaminated sediments.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Calculating background levels for ecological risk parameters in toxic harbor sediment
Series title:
Soil and Sediment Contamination
Volume
16
Issue:
5
Year Published:
2007
Language:
English
Contributing office(s):
Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
Description:
433-450
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
First page:
433
Last page:
450
Number of Pages:
18