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Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Abstract

Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise
Series title:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Volume
106
Issue:
15
Year Published:
2009
Language:
English
Contributing office(s):
Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
Description:
6182-6186
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
First page:
6182
Last page:
6186
Number of Pages:
5