White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) declined in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota between 1968 and 1974. In a 3,000 sq km area of the poorest habitat, deer were decimated. Contributing factors were severe winters, deteriorating habitat, and wolves. Wolves killed older deer, but insufficient fawns were available to replace them.
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Federal Government Series
Role of the wolf in a deer decline in the Superior National Forest