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Acute toxicity of diphacinone in Northern bobwhite: Effects on survival and blood clotting

Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety

By:
, , ,
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.05.021

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Abstract

The anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was slightly toxic (acute oral LD50 2014 mg/kg) to Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) in a 14-day acute toxicity trial. Precise and sensitive assays of blood clotting (prothrombin time, Russell?s Viper venom time, and thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in quail, and this combination of assays is recommended to measure the effects of anticoagulant rodenticides. A single oral sublethal dose of diphacinone (434 mg/kg body weight) prolonged clotting time at 48 h post-dose compared to controls. At 783 mg/kg (approximate LD02), clotting time was prolonged at both 24 and 48 h post-dose. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity, and was detected before overt signs of toxicity were apparent at the greatest dosages (2868 and 3666 mg/kg) in the acute toxicity trial. These clotting time assays and toxicity data will assist in the development of a pharmacodynamic model to predict toxicity, and also facilitate rodenticide hazard and risk assessments in avian species.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Acute toxicity of diphacinone in Northern bobwhite: Effects on survival and blood clotting
Series title:
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
DOI:
10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.05.021
Volume
73
Issue:
6
Year Published:
2010
Language:
English
Contributing office(s):
Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
Description:
6 p.
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
First page:
1159
Last page:
1164
Number of Pages:
6
Country:
United States