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Transplantation of storm-generated coral fragments to enhance Caribbean coral reefs: A successful method but not a solution

International Journal of Tropical Biology

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Abstract

In response to dramatic losses of reef-building corals and ongoing lack of recovery, a small-scale coral transplant project was initiated in the Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands) in 1999 and was followed for 12 years. The primary objectives were to (1) identify a source of coral colonies for transplantation that would not result in damage to reefs, (2) test the feasibility of transplanting storm-generated coral fragments, and (3) develop a simple, inexpensive method for transplanting fragments that could be conducted by the local community. The ultimate goal was to enhance abundance of threatened reef-building species on local reefs. Storm-produced coral fragments of two threatened reef-building species [Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis (Acroporidae)] and another fast-growing species [Porites porites (Poritidae)] were collected from environments hostile to coral fragment survival and transplanted to degraded reefs. Inert nylon cable ties were used to attach transplanted coral fragments to dead coral substrate. Survival of 75 reference colonies and 60 transplants was assessed over 12 years. Only 9% of colonies were alive after 12 years: no A. cervicornis; 3% of A. palmata transplants and 18% of reference colonies; and 13% of P. porites transplants and 7% of reference colonies. Mortality rates for all species were high and were similar for transplant and reference colonies. Physical dislodgement resulted in the loss of 56% of colonies, whereas 35% died in place. Only A. palmata showed a difference between transplant and reference colony survival and that was in the first year only. Location was a factor in survival only for A. palmata reference colonies and after year 10. Even though the tested methods and concepts were proven effective in the field over the 12-year study, they do not present a solution. No coral conservation strategy will be effective until underlying intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors driving high mortality rates are understood and mitigated or eliminated.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Transplantation of storm-generated coral fragments to enhance Caribbean coral reefs: A successful method but not a solution
Series title:
International Journal of Tropical Biology
Volume
60
Issue:
S1
Year Published:
2012
Language:
English
Publisher:
Universidad de Costa Rica
Publisher location:
San Jose, Costa Rica, Central America
Contributing office(s):
Southeast Ecological Science Center
Description:
22 p.
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
International Journal of Tropical Biology
First page:
59
Last page:
70
Other Geospatial:
U.S. Virgin Islands