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Accumulation of current-use and organochlorine pesticides in crab embryos from Northern California, USA

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

By:
, , and
DOI: 10.1002/etc.317

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Abstract

Invertebrates have long been used as resident sentinels for assessing ecosystem health and productivity. The shore crabs, Hemigrapsus oregonensis and Pachygrapsus crassipes, are abundant in estuaries and beaches throughout northern California, USA and have been used as indicators of habitat conditions in several salt marshes. The overall objectives of the present study were to conduct a lab-based study to test the accumulation of current-use pesticides, validate the analytical method and to analyze field-collected crabs for a suite of 74 current-use and legacy pesticides. A simple laboratory uptake study was designed to determine if embryos could bioconcentrate the herbicide molinate over a 7-d period. At the end of the experiment, embryos were removed from the crabs and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Although relatively hydrophilic (log KOW of 2.9), molinate did accumulate with an estimated bioconcentration factor (log BCF) of approximately 2.5. Following method validation, embryos were collected from two different Northern California salt marshes and analyzed. In field-collected embryos 18 current-use and eight organochlorine pesticides were detected including synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphate insecticides, as well as DDT and its degradates. Lipid-normalized concentrations of the pesticides detected in the field-collected crab embryos ranged from 0.1 to 4 ppm. Pesticide concentrations and profiles in crab embryos were site specific and could be correlated to differences in land-use practices. These preliminary results indicate that embryos are an effective sink for organic contaminants in the environment and have the potential to be good indicators of ecosystem health, especially when contaminant body burden analyses are paired with reproductive impairment assays.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Accumulation of current-use and organochlorine pesticides in crab embryos from Northern California, USA
Series title:
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
DOI:
10.1002/etc.317
Volume
29
Issue:
11
Year Published:
2010
Language:
English
Publisher:
Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Publisher location:
Brussels, Belgium
Contributing office(s):
California Water Science Center
Description:
7 p.
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
First page:
2593
Last page:
2599
Number of Pages:
7
Country:
United States
State:
California