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Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made for both Er- and Yb-doped (1̃03ppm) zircon single crystals with the magnetic field perpendicular and parallel to the  axis. Large susceptibility anisotropies were found in both cases. Our observed anisotropies of ZrSiO4: Yb indicate small populations (1̃9%) of Yb ions at the axial (tetragonal) sites, as the susceptibility of ZrSiO4: Yb would be nearly isotropic if the Yb ions only occupied the orthorhombic sites. For Er3+ in orthorhombic sites of zircon, our data indicate that the first excited state is paramagnetic with gx = 9 and gy 5̃ at 20 cm-1 above the ground state (gx 0̃, gy 1̃5). The first excited state is quite similar to the ground states observed for Er3+ in many host lattices. ?? 1977.
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Anisotropic magnetic susceptibility of erbium and ytterbium in zircon, ZrSiO4