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Geoscience has extended its role and improved its applications by the development of geophysics since the nineteen-thirties, geochemistry since the nineteen-fifties and now, in the late nineteen-sixties, a new synergism leads to geomathematics; again the greatest pressure for change arises from areas of application of geoscience and, as the problems to which geoscience is applied increase in complexity, the analytical tools become more sophisticated, a development which is accelerated by growth in the use of computers in geological problem-solving. In the next decade the problems with greatest public impact appear to be the ones which will receive greatest emphasis and support. This will require that the geosciences comprehend exceedingly complex probabilistic systems and these, in turn, demand the use of operations research, cybernetics and systems analysis. Such a development may well lead to a change in the paradigms underlying geoscience; they will certainly include more realistic models of "real-world" systems and the tool of simulation with cybernetic models may well become the basis for rejuvenation of experimentation in the geosciences. ?? 1970.