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An electrochemical device was used to measure the fugacity of oxygen (fO2) in holes drilled through the crust of Makaopuhi lava lake, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Results obtained within 6 months of the lake formation show that log fO2 normally varies linearly with the reciprocal of the absolute temperature, and that chemical changes occurring in the cooling tholeiitic basalt are reflected in the fO2 values measured in the holes.
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Oxygen fugacities directly measured in magmatic gases