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Clay mineral formation and transformation in rocks and soils

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences

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DOI: 10.1098/rsta.1984.0026

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Abstract

Three mechanisms for clay mineral formation (inheritance, neoformation, and transformation) operating in three geological environments (weathering, sedimentary, and diagenetic-hydrothermal) yield nine possibilities for the origin of clay minerals in nature. Several of these possibilities are discussed in terms of the rock cycle. The mineralogy of clays neoformed in the weathering environment is a function of solution chemistry, with the most dilute solutions favoring formation of the least soluble clays. After erosion and transportation, these clays may be deposited on the ocean floor in a lateral sequence that depends on floccule size. Clays undergo little reaction in the ocean, except for ion exchange and the neoformation of smectite; therefore, most clays found on the ocean floor are inherited from adjacent continents. Upon burial and heating, however, dioctahedral smectite reacts in the diagenetic environment to yield mixed-layer illite-smectite, and finally illite. With uplift and weathering, the cycle begins again. Refs.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Clay mineral formation and transformation in rocks and soils
Series title:
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
DOI:
10.1098/rsta.1984.0026
Volume
311
Issue:
1517
Year Published:
1983
Language:
English
Publisher:
Royal Society of London
Publisher location:
London, England
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
First page:
241
Last page:
257
Conference Title:
Clay Min, Their Struct, Behav and Use
Conference Location:
London, Engl