Active thermal areas are concentrated in three areas on Mauna Loa and three areas on Kilauea. High-temperature fumaroles (115-362?? C) on Mauna Loa are restricted to the summit caldera, whereas high-temperature fumaroles on Kilauea are found in the upper East Rift Zone (Mauna Ulu summit fumaroles, 562?? C), middle East Rift Zone (1977 eruptive fissure fumaroles), and in the summit caldera. Solfataric activity that has continued for several decades occurs along border faults of Kilauea caldera and at Sulphur Cone on the southwest rift zone of Mauna Loa. Solfataras that are only a few years old occur along recently active eruptive fissures in the summit caldera and along the rift zones of Kilauea. Steam vents and hot-air cracks also occur at the edges of cooling lava ponds, on the summits of lava shields, along faults and graben fractures, and in diffuse patches that may reflect shallow magmatic intrusions. ?? 1983.
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Thermal areas on Kilauea and Mauna Loa Volcanoes, Hawaii