The ichnofossils and rhizoliths of the Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation of Egypt are among the best preserved, most diverse in form, and most abundant of such structures yet recognized in fluvial rocks. Twenty-one forms are described. The ichnofauna contains traces (domichnia, fodinichnia, cubichnia) of probable annelid, insect, crustacean, and vertebrate origin. These include the first described fossil nest structures and gallery systems of subterranean termites (Isoptera), the first examples of Ophiomorpha from wholly fluvial rocks, and the first fossil vertebrate burrows from the African Tertiary. Rhizoliths associated with the ichnofauna and those occurring elsewhere document a variety of small, wetland plants, coastal mangroves, and much larger trees. The environment suggested by these traces is consistent with the coastal, tropical to subtropical, monsoonal rain forest, with adjacent more open areas, that is indicated by independent evidence of sedimentology, paleontology, and paleopedology. ?? 1982.
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Ichnofossils and rhizoliths of the nearshore fluvial Jebel Qatrani Formation (Oligocene), Fayum Province, Egypt