Core samples of Devonian shales from five localities in the Appalachian basin have been analyzed chemically and mineralogically. The amounts of major elements are similar; however, the minor constituents, organic C, S, phosphate and carbonate show ten-fold variations in amounts. Trace elements Mo, Ni, Cu, V, Co, U, Zn, Hg, As and Mn show variations in amounts that can be related to the minor constituents. All samples contain major amounts of quartz, illite, two types of mixed-layer clays, and chlorite in differing quantities. Pyrite, calcite, feldspar and kaolinite are also present in many samples in minor amounts. Dolomite, apatite, gypsum, barite, biotite and marcasite are present in a few samples in trace amounts. Trace elements listed above are strongly controlled by organic C with the exception of Mn which is associated with carbonate minerals. Amounts of organic C generally range from 3 to 6%, and S is in the range of 2-5%. Amounts of trace elements show the following general ranges in ppm (parts per million): Co, 20-40; Cu, 40-70; U, 10-40; As, 20-40; V, 150-300; Ni, 80-150; high values are as much as twice these values. The organic C was probably the concentrating agent, and the organic C and sulfide S together created an environment that immobilized and preserved these trace elements. Closely spaced samples showing an abrupt transition in color also show changes in organic C, S and trace-element contents. Several associations exist between mineral and chemical content. Pyrite and marcasite are the only minerals found to contain sulfide-S. In general, the illite-chlorite mixed-layer clay mineral shows covariation with organic C if calcite is not present. The enriched trace elements are not related to the clay types, although the clay and organic matter are intimately associated as the bulk fabric of the rock. ?? 1982.
Additional publication details
Chemical and mineralogical analysis of devonian black-shale samples from Martin County, Kentucky; Carroll and Washington counties, Ohio; Wise County, Virginia; and Overton County, Tennessee, U.S.A.