Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios for a representative suite of 15 basanites, alkali basalts, transitional basalts and tholeiites from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii, display unusually large variations for a single volcano, but lie within known ranges for Hawaiian basalts. Nd isotope ratios in alkali basalts show the largest relative variation (0.51291-0.51305), and include the nearly constant tholeiite value ( ??? 0.51297). Pb isotope ratios show similarly large ranges for tholeiites and alkali basalts and continue Tatsumoto's  "Loa" trend towards higher 206Pb 204Pb ratios, resulting in a substantial overlap with the "Kea" trend. 206Pb 204Pb ratios for Loihi and other volcanoes along the Loa and Kea trends  are observed to correlate with the age of the underlying lithosphere suggesting lithosphere involvement in the formation of Hawaiian tholeiites. Loihi lavas display no correlation of Nd, Sr, or Pb isotope ratios with major element compositions or eruptive age, in contrast with observations of some other Hawaiian volcanoes . Isotope data for Loihi, as well as average values for Hawaiian volcanoes, are not adequately explained by previously proposed two-end-member models; new models for the origin and the development of Hawaiian volcanoes must include mixing of at least three geochemically distinct source regions and allow for the involvement of heterogeneous oceanic lithosphere. ?? 1984.
Additional publication details
The isotope systematics of a juvenile intraplate volcano: Pb, Nd, and Sr isotope ratios of basalts from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii