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Volcanic ash which fell in the peat swamp that formed the Upper Cretaceous C coal bed (Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale, Utah) produced semi-impermeable layers that caused the ponding of surface waters. Coal samples from directly above tonsteins (altered volcanic ash partings) are enriched in desmocollinite, telinite, and detrocollinite, as a result of poorly drained swamp conditions; coal samples from directly below tonsteins are enriched in semifusinite, inertodetrinite, and fusinite, as a result of well-drained conditions. Leaching of the volcanic ash or the incorporation of volcanic ash in peat provided a source for many elements (including Zr, Nb, Th, and Ce) that are enriched in coal samples taken from directly above and below tonsteins. ?? 1989.
Additional Publication Details
The effects of volcanic ash on the maceral and chemical composition of the C coal bed, Emery Coal Field, Utah