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The stable isotopes of carbon and sulfur in a major marine sedimentary phosphate deposit from the northwestern United States (the Phosphoria Formation of Permian age) characterize the chemical properties of the depositional environment. The ??34S and ??13C analyses suggest deposition under conditions of variable redox from a solution the acidity of which was controlled by reaction with carbonate rocks and exchange with seawater. The ??18O concentration of apetite indicates phosphatization in a shallow sea, during three glacial and intervening interglacial stages. These data tend to corroborate the interpretation of field studies by others, that the apatite formed on a continental shelf in an area of intense oceanic upwelling during several episodes of sea level change. ?? 1987.
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The stable isotopic composition of a phosphorite deposit: ??13C, ??34S, and ??18O
Deep Sea Research Part A, Oceanographic Research Papers