A geotechnical investigation of the Pierre Shale near Hayes, South Dakota, was conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey as a basis for evaluating problems in deep excavations into that formation. The physical and mechanical properties of the shale were determined through use of core holes drilled to a maximum depth of 184 m. In situ borehole determinations included a gravimeter survey, pressuremeter testing, thermal profile measurements, and borehole velocity measurements. Onsite and offsite laboratory measurements included rebound measurements, sonic velocity measurements of shear and primary waves, X-ray mineralogy and major element determinations, size analyses, fracture analyses, fabric analyses, and determination of thermal properties. The properties of the clay shale indicate problems that may be encountered in excavation and use of deep underground facilities.
Additional publication details
IN SITU AND LABORATORY GEOTECHNICAL TESTS OF THE PIERRE SHALE NEAR HAYES, SOUTH DAKOTA - A CHARACTERIZATION OF ENGINEERING BEHAVIOR.