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Detailed hydrogeological study has been done at six sites along the Lake Michigan shoreline in Wisconsin. At each site a flux of groundwater to the lake has been calculated for both natural conditions and the existing conditions created by pumping. The values from each site have then been extrapolated to the entire portion of the total shoreline having similar hydrogeology in order to calculate a total flow of groundwater to the lake. Sensitivity analysis with a digital model was used to define limits on the similarity of hydrogeologic conditions. The net flow calculated is 580-880 m3 day-1 km-1 of shoreline, which falls within the previously published range of 110-8200 m3 day-1 km-1. Human activity may have reduced the natural flow as much as 15%. The estimated natural flow is between 7 and 11% of the surface water contribution to the lake from the study area. ?? 1986.
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Groundwater flow into Lake Michigan from Wisconsin