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Isotopic and chemical evidence concerning the genesis and contamination of basaltic and rhyolitic magma beneath the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field

Journal of Petrology

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Abstract

Since 2.2 Ma, the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field has produced ~6000 km3 of rhyolite tuffs and lavas in >60 separate eruptions, as well as ~100 km3 of tholeiitic basalt from >50 vents peripheral to the silicic focus. Intermediate eruptive products are absent. Early postcollapse rhyolites show large shifts in Nd, Sr, Pb, and O isotopic composition caused by assimilation of roof rocks and hydrothermal brines during collapse and resurgence. Younger intracaldera rhyolite lavas record partial isotopic recovery toward precaldera ratios. Thirteen extracaldera rhyolites show none of these effects and have sources independent of the subcaldera magma system. Contributions from the Archaean crust have extreme values and wide ranges of Nd-, Sr, and Pb-isotope ratios, but Yellowstone rhyolites have moderate values and limited ranges. This requires their deep-crustal sources to have been pervasively hybridized by distributed intrusion of Cenozoic basalt, most of which was probably contemporaneous with the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanism. Most Yellowstone basalts had undergone cryptic clinopyroxene fractionation in the lower crust or crust-mantle transition zone and, having also ascended through or adjacent to crustal zones of silicic-magma generation, most underwent some crustal contamination. -from Authors

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Isotopic and chemical evidence concerning the genesis and contamination of basaltic and rhyolitic magma beneath the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field
Series title:
Journal of Petrology
Volume
32
Issue:
1
Year Published:
1991
Language:
English
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Journal of Petrology
First page:
63
Last page:
138
Number of Pages:
76