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H, O, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope geochemistry of the Latir volcanic field and cogenetic intrusions, New Mexico, and relations between evolution of a continental magmatic center and modifications of the lithosphere

Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

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, , and
DOI: 10.1007/BF00310649

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Abstract

Over 200 H, O, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope analyses, in addition to geologic and petrologic constraints, document the magmatic evolution of the 28.5-19 Ma Latir volcanic field and associated intrusive rocks, which includes multiple stages of crustal assimilation, magma mixing, protracted crystallization, and open- and closed-system evolution in the upper crust. In contrast to data from younger volcanic centers in northern New Mexico, relatively low and restricted primary ??18O values (+6.4 to +7.4) rule out assimilation of supracrustal rocks enriched in 18O. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.705 to 0.708), ??18O values (-2 to-7), and 206Pb/204Pb ratios (17.5 to 18.4) of metaluminous precaldera volcanic rocks and postcaldera plutonic rocks suggest that most Latir rocks were generated by fractional crystallization of substantial volumes of mantle-derived basaltic magma that had near-chondritic Nd isotope ratios, accompanied by assimilation of crustal material in two main stages: 1) assimilation of non-radiogenic lower crust, followed by 2) assimilation of middle and upper crust by inter-mediate-composition magmas that had been contaminated during the first stage. Magmatic evolution in the upper crust peaked with eruption of the peralkaline Amalia Tuff (???26 Ma), which evolved from metaluminous parental magmas. A third stage of late, roofward assimilation of Proterozoic rocks in the Amalia Tuff magma is indicated by trends in initial 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb ratios from 0.7057 to 0.7098 and 19.5 to 18.8, respectively, toward the top of the pre-eruptive magma chamber. Highly evolved postcaldera plutons are generally fine grained and are zoned in initial 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb ratios, varying from 0.705 to 0.709 and 17.8 to 18.6, respectively. In contrast, the coarser-grained Cabresto Lake (???25 Ma) and Rio Hondo (???21 Ma) plutons have relatively homogeneous initial 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb ratios of approximately 0.7053 and 17.94 and 17.55, respectively. ??18O values for all the postcaldera plutons overlap those of the precaldera rocks and Amalia Tuff, except for those for two late-stage rhyolite dikes associated with the Rio Hondo pluton that have ??18O values of-8.6 and-9.5; these dikes are the only Latir rocks which may be largely crustal melts. Chemical and isotopic data from the Latir field suggest that large fluxes of mantle-derived basaltic magma are necessary for developing and sustaining large-volume volcanic centers. Development of a detailed model suggests that 6-15 km of new crust may have been added beneath the volcanic center; such an addition may result in significant changes in the chemical and Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of the crust, although Pb isotope ratios will remain relatively unchanged. If accompanied by assimilation, crystallization of pooled basaltic magma near the MOHO may produce substantial cumulates beneath the MOHO that generate large changes in the isotopic composition of the upper mantle. The Latir field may be similar to other large-volume, long-lived intracratonal volcanic fields that fundamentally owe their origins to extensive injection of basaltic magma into the lower parts of their magmatic systems. Such fields may overlie areas of significant crustal growth and hybridization. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
H, O, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope geochemistry of the Latir volcanic field and cogenetic intrusions, New Mexico, and relations between evolution of a continental magmatic center and modifications of the lithosphere
Series title:
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology
DOI:
10.1007/BF00310649
Volume
104
Issue:
1
Year Published:
1990
Language:
English
Publisher location:
Springer-Verlag
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology
First page:
99
Last page:
124