The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has begun a digital cartographic modernization program. Keys to that program are the creation of a multiscale database, a feature-based file structure that is derived from a spatial data model, and a series of "templates" or rules that specify the relationships between instances of entities in reality and features in the database. The database will initially hold data collected from the USGS standard map products at scales of 1:24,000, 1:100,000, and 1:2,000,000. The spatial data model is called the digital line graph-enhanced model, and the comprehensive rule set consists of collection rules, product generation rules, and conflict resolution rules. This modernization program will affect the USGS mapmaking process because both digital and graphic products will be created from the database. In addition, non-USGS map users will have more flexibility in uses of the databases. These remarks are those of the session discussant made in response to the six papers and the keynote address given in the session. ?? 1992.
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Modernization and multiscale databases at the U.S. geological survey