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Determining baselines and variability of elements in plants and soils near the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

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DOI: 10.1007/BF00475493

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Abstract

Recent investigations on the Kenai Peninsula had two major objectives: (1) to establish elemental baseline concentrations ranges for native vegetation and soils; and, (2) to determine the sampling density required for preparing stable regional geochemical maps for various elements in native plants and soils. These objectives were accomplished using an unbalanced, nested analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) barbell sampling design. Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) BSG (feather moss, whole plant), Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce, twigs and needles), and soil horizons (02 and C) were collected and analyzed for major and trace total element concentrations. Using geometric means and geometric deviations, expected baseline ranges for elements were calculated. Results of the ANOVA show that intensive soil or plant sampling is needed to reliably map the geochemistry of the area, due to large local variability. For example, producing reliable element maps of feather moss using a 50 km cell (at 95% probability) would require sampling densities of from 4 samples per cell for Al, Co, Fe, La, Li, and V, to more than 15 samples per cell for Cu, Pb, Se, and Zn.Recent investigations on the Kenai Peninsula had two major objectives: (1) to establish elemental baseline concentrations ranges for native vegetation and soils; and, (2) to determine the sampling density required for preparing stable regional geochemical maps for various elements in native plants and soils. These objectives were accomplished using an unbalanced, nested analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) barbell sampling design. Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) BSG (feather moss, whole plant), Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce, twigs and needles), and soil horizons (02 and C) were collected and analyzed for major and trace total element concentrations. Using geometric means and geometric deviations, expected baseline ranges for elements were calculated. Results of the ANOVA show that intensive soil or plant sampling is needed to reliably map the geochemistry of the area, due to large local variability. For example, producing reliable element maps of feather moss using a 50 km cell (at 95% probability) would require sampling densities of from 4 samples per cell Al, Co, Fe, La, Li, and V, to more than 15 samples per cell for Cu, Pb, Se, and Zn.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Determining baselines and variability of elements in plants and soils near the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska
Series title:
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
DOI:
10.1007/BF00475493
Volume
63
Issue:
3-4
Year Published:
1992
Language:
English
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
First page:
253
Last page:
271
Number of Pages:
19