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The photo processing industry can be characterized by treatment processes and subsequent silver recovery. The effluents generated all contain various amounts of silver. The objectives of this study were to determine toxicity of photo processing effluents and to explore their toxicity mitigation. Six samples, from small shops to a major photo processing center, were studied. Two samples (I and VI) were found to be extremely toxic, causing 100 and 99% inhibition of duckweed frond reproduction, respectively, and were used for subsequent toxicity reduction experiments. Lime and sodium sulfide were effective for the toxicity reduction of Sample VI; both reduced its toxicity to negligible. Sample I was far more toxic and was first diluted to 2.2% and then treated with 0.5 g lime/100 mL, reducing toxicity from 100% to 12% inhibition.
Additional Publication Details
Toxicity reduction of photo processing wastewaters
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Environmental Science and Engineering