The geochemical processes affecting the behavior and speciation of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in Hall Lake, Washington, USA, are assessed by examining dissolved and acid soluble particulate profiles of the elements and utilizing results from thermodynamic calculations. The water column of this meromictic lake is highly stratified and contains distinctive oxic, suboxic, and anoxic layers. Changes in the redox state of the water column with depth affect the distribution of all the elements studied. Most noticeable are increases in dissolved Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations across the oxic-suboxic boundary, increases in dissolved As, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, and V concentrations with depth in the anoxic layer, significant decreases in dissolved Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the anoxic region below the sulfide maximum, and large increases in acid soluble particulate concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the anoxic zone below the sulfide maximum. Thermodynamic calculations for the anoxic region indicate that all redox sensitive elements exist in their reduced forms, the primary dissolved forms of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn are metal sulfide solution complexes, and solid sulfide phases of Cu, Fe, Mo, and Pb are supersaturated. Calculations using a vertical diffusion and reaction model indicate that the oxidation rate constant for Mn(II) in Hall Lake is estimated to be 0.006 d-1 and is at the lower end of the range of microbial oxidation rates observed in other natural systems. The main geochemical processes influencing the distribution and speciation of trace elements in Hall Lake appear to be transformations of dissolved elements between their oxidation states (As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, V), cocycling of trace elements with Mn and Fe (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, Zn), formation of soluble metal sulfide complexes (Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), sorption (As, Co, Cr, Ni, V), and precipitation (Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Zn). ?? 1994.
Additional Publication Details
The geochemical cycling of trace elements in a biogenic meromictic lake