Fulvic acid binding sites (1.3-70 ??M) and EDTA (0.0017-0.18 ??M) accounted for organically bound Cu in seven stream samples measured by potentiometric titration. Cu was 84-99% organically bound in filtrates with 200 nM total Cu. Binding of Cu by EDTA was limited by competition from other trace metals. Water hardness was inversely related to properties of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that enhance fulvic acid binding: DOC concentration, percentage of DOC that is fulvic acid, and binding sites per fulvic acid carbon. Dissolved trace metals, stabilized by organic binding, occurred at increased concentration in soft water as compared to hard water.
Additional publication details
Copper speciation and binding by organic matter in copper-contaminated streamwater